Neolithic Age in India

The Neolithic period began around 10700 to 9400 BC in Tell Qaramel in Northern Syria. In South Asia the date assigned to Neolithic period is 7000 BC and the earliest example is Mehrgarh Culture. The human settlements in the Mesolithic era got more sedentary and this was the beginning of establishment of villages. Man now could […]

Mesolithic Age in India

The transition from the Palaeolithic period to Mesolithic period is marked by transition from Pleistocene period to Holocene and favourable changes in the climate. The climate became warmer and humid and there was expansion of flora and fauna contributed by increased rainfall. This led to availability of new resources to humans. ContentsTools of Mesolithic EraChanges […]

Chalcolithic Age in India

Chalcolithic is also known as Eneolithic period which saw the use of the metals among which the Copper was first. It is called Chalcolithic which means use of stone and well as copper was prevalent in this period. The earliest settlements of the Chalcolithic period range from the Gangetic basin to Chhotanagpur Plateau. The economy […]

Introduction to Prehistory

The past of humankind has been divided into two broad categories viz. Prehistoric and historic. Prehistoric period belongs to the time before the emergence of writing and the historic period to the time following it. It has been so fare believed that Modern Humans originated in Africa and have lived on our planet for around […]

Palaeolithic Age Prehistory of India

Prehistoric period belongs to the time before the emergence of writing. It is believed that man learnt writing only about 5000-8000 years ago during the Neolithic period. The earliest known Neolithic writings are Dispilio Tablet (found in Greece) and Tărtăria tablets (found in Romania). Both of these belong to 6th millennium BC. Thus, Prehistory began with appearance of the […]

Extent of Indus Valley Civilization

The continuous researches and excavations have revealed the extent of the Indus Valley Civilization. The term “Indus Valley Civilization” was used by John Marshall for the first time. But the later researches have shown that the extent was bigger than what was postulated by John Marshall. The centre of the civilization was in Sind and […]

Social Life at Indus Valley Civilization

Most knowledge about the life at Indus Valley comes from the remains of the cities of Harappa and Mohen-Jo Daro. Important aspects of social, economic and religious life are discussed below: ContentsAdministration: Was there any central authority in Indus Valley?LanguageReligionLinga WorshipTree Worship and other ritualsTalismanFoodDressSports and Entertainments:Science & TechnologyTools, arms and weaponsBurial PracticeEconomyAgricultureAnimal HusbandryTransportationRelations with […]


Kalibangan (literally black bangles) is located at Pilibangān, between Suratgarh and Hanumāngarh in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. It was one of the main sites of the Indus Valley Civilization and most scholars agree that it was located on the bank of River Saraswati which dried up by 2000 BC.  Kalibangan has given the evidence of both […]


Lothal is a small mature Harappan settlement near Gulf of Khambat in Dhalka taluk of Ahmadabad in Gujrat. It was first excavated in 1957 by S R Rao. The notable structures at Lothal include a dockyard, warehouse, workshop for manufacturing of stone beads, evidence of shell working, rice husk and a cemetery. Dockyard The artificial […]


It is located in the Bhuj area of Gujarat. It was excavated by J P Joshi in 1972. It was a fortified settlement. Surkotda has provided evidence of the first actual remains of the horse bones. A grave in association with a big rock has been found at Surkotda which is also a distinct feature.

Administration and Economy of Indus Valley Civilization

ContentsAdministration in Indus Valley Civilization Economy in Indus Valley Civilization Agriculture in Indus Valley Civilization Animal Husbandry in Indus Valley Civilization Transportation in Indus Valley Civilization Foreign Affairs in Indus Valley Civilization Consumer Affairs in Indus Valley Civilization Finance, Business and Industry in Indus Valley Civilization Metallurgy in Indus Valley Civilization Pottery Seals in Indus […]


Dholavira is located on Khadir Beyt, an island in the Great Rann of Kutch in Gujarat in India. It has been excavated since 1990 by a team lead by R S Bisht of ASI. The city is as large as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. It has some of the best preserved stone architecture. A tantalizing signboard […]

Chanhu Daro

Chanhu Daro is situated 130 kms south of Mohenjo-Daro in Sindh and there has been found a single mound. It was discovered by N G Majumdar in 1931 and was later excavated on a large scale by Mackay in 1935-36. Chanhu Daro is the only harappan city which does not have a fortified citadel. The […]

Chronology of Indus Valley Civilization

The chronology of the rise and fall of the Harappan civilization has been an issue of debate and controversy. Substantive work was done by Marshall who dated this civilization between the 3250-2700 BC. The modern research based upon the C-14 dating or radiocarbon dating has placed it between the 2900 BC to 2000 BC. However, […]


Mohenjo-Daro was a most important Harappan city. The meaning of Mohenjo-Daro is “Mound of the dead” and Mohenjo-Daro is the best known Indus site. It is located in Sindh, Pakistan, next to the Indus River. Here the Great Bath, uniform buildings and weights, hidden drains and other hallmarks of the civilization were discovered in the […]


Rakhigarhi is located in the Hissar district of Haryana. The excavations were carried out by ASI in 1997 under the leadership of Prof. Surajbhan & Acharya Bhagwan Dev. Not much has been published but this site gives evidences of two cultures early harappan and mature harappan. The most important finding is an inscripted seal. About […]

Other sites of Indus Valley Civilization

It was the eastern boundary of the Indus Valley Civilization. The evidences say that this site developed in mature harappan phase. Kot Diji: Kot Diji was a pre-harappan site and located on the left bank of River Sindh. This city was destructed by Force or some fire. A tar is the major object found here. […]