The Gupta era is known for tremendous development in the development of astronomy, astrology, mathematics and metallurgy.
Aryabhatta was the legendary mathematician of the Gupta Era. He wrote Aryabhattiya at the age of 23 years and later, Arya-Siddhanta. He worked on the approximation for pi to 3.1416. In trigonometry, he concluded for a triangle, the result of a perpendicular with the half-side is the area. He also worked on the motions of the solar system and calculated the length of the solar year to 365.8586805 days. Aryabhatta lived in Kusumpur in Pataliputra.
Varahamihira lived in Ujjain and was one of the nine jewels (Navaratnas) of the court of Chandragupta II. He wrote Panchasiddhantaka, the five treatises on astronomy (NOT astrology). It summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhantas.